Seeing of the Sadhus is carefully managed and worshipers often leave tokens at their feet. [28] It is found in the Vedic texts, in this sense, often in the context of holding water or in mythical legends about the nectar of immortality. [106] The pilgrimage is also recommended in Hindu texts to those who have made mistakes or sinned, repent their errors and as a means of prāyaścitta (atonement, penance) for these mistakes. [23] The festival is observed over many days, with the day of Amavasya attracting the largest number on a single day. [93], For the 2019 PrayagrajKumbh Mela, the Uttar Pradesh chief minister Yogi Adityanath announced that the Ardh Kumbh Mela (organised every 6 years) will simply be known as "Kumbh Mela", and the Kumbh Mela (organised every 12 years) will be known as "Maha Kumbh Mela" ("Great Kumbh Mela"). A Maha Kumbh Mela de 2001, em Prayagraj, foi um dos maiores e mais espetaculares festivais jamais ocorridos. Em janeiro de 2013 teve início em Prayagraj mais uma edição do Khumb Mela, esperando-se cerca de 100 milhões de participantes durante os 55 dias do evento.[2]. However, states Lochtefeld, these historical texts "clearly reveal large, well-established bathing festivals" that were either annual or based on the twelve-year cycle of planet Jupiter. They also have been a central attraction and a stop for mainstream Hindus who seek their darsana (meeting, view) as well as spiritual guidance and blessings. They are able to "seek instruction or advice in their spiritual lives." The story varies and is inconsistent, with some stating Vishnu as Mohini avatar, others stating Dhanavantari or Garuda or Indra spilling the pot. [45][46][47], Kama MacLean – an Indologist who has published articles on the Kumbh Mela predominantly based on the colonial archives and English-language media,[48] states based on emails from other scholars and a more recent interpretation of the 7th-century Xuanzang memoir, the Prayag event happened every 5 years (and not 12 years), featured a Buddha statue, involved alms giving and it might have been a Buddhist festival. [44] According to some scholars, this is the earliest surviving historical account of the Kumbh Mela, which took place in present-day Prayag in 644 CE. Esta página foi editada pela última vez às 09h51min de 20 de setembro de 2019. [53] Both these Mughal era texts use the term "Kumbh Mela" to describe only Haridwar's fair, mentioning a similar fair held in Prayag and Nashik. [110], Darshan, or viewing, is an important part of the Kumbh Mela. This word too is found in the Rigveda and other ancient Hindu texts. The sangam site is known as Prayag, sometimes Tirtharaj (. [66][102] These monastic institutions come from different parts of India, have a particular emblem symbol and deity (Ganesha, Dattatreya, Hanuman, etc.). Through their continual yogic practices the Sadhus articulate the transitory aspect of life. [25] Nasik has registered maximum visitors to 75 million. [20] Additionally, the priests sought the British administration to recognise the festival and protect their religious rights. The camping (santhas/akharas), food, water, sanitation, emergency health care, fire services, policing, disaster management preparations, the movement of people require significant prior planning. Diane Eck (1981), India's "TÄ«rthas: "Crossings" in Sacred Geography. [3][4] During the colonial era rule of the East India Company, its officials saw the Hindu pilgrimage as a means to collect vast sums of revenue through a "pilgrim tax" and taxes on the trade that occurred during the festival. Kumbh Mela has been theme for many documentaries, including Kings with Straw Mats (1998) directed by Ira Cohen, Kumbh Mela: The Greatest Show on Earth (2001) directed by Graham Day,[111] Short Cut to Nirvana: Kumbh Mela (2004) directed by Nick Day and produced by "Maurizio Benazzo",[112] Kumbh Mela: Songs of the River (2004) by Nadeem Uddin,[113] Invocation, Kumbh Mela (2008), Kumbh Mela 2013: Living with Mahatiagi (2013) by the Ukrainian Religious Studies Project Ahamot,[114] and Kumbh Mela: Walking with the Nagas (2011), Amrit: Nectar of Immortality (2012) directed by Jonas Scheu and Philipp Eyer. Many pilgrims practice partial (one meal a day) or full vrata (day-long fasting), some abstain from elaborate meals. [34][35], This Hindu legend describes the creation of a "pot of amrita (nectar of immortality)" after the forces of good and evil churn the ocean of creation. [92] According to Kama Maclean, the coordinators and attendees themselves state that a part of the glory of the Kumbh festival is in that "feeling of brotherhood and love" where millions peacefully gather on the river banks in harmony and a sense of shared heritage. The ruthlessly slaughtered pilgrims were likely those attending the Kumbh mela of 1399. Kumbh Melas feature many trade, fairs, charity, community singing, religious recitations, and entertainment spectacles. It is hosted in four cities of India these are Haridwar, Prayag or Allahabad, Ujjain and Nashik. [58] These soldier-monk traditions have been a well-established feature of the Indian society, and they are prominent feature of the Kumbh melas. [12] Elsewhere in many parts of India, similar but smaller community pilgrimage and bathing festivals are called the Magha Mela, Makar Mela or equivalent. The dispute started over the bathing order, which then indicated status of the akharas. Evolution of earlier melas to Kumbh Melas, Akharas: Warrior monks, recruitment drive and logistics, 1857 rebellion and the Independence movement. Left: Anna Dāna event at Prayag Kumbh, feeding monks and poor; Right: A dance performance. Jupiter in Aries, Sun and Moon in Capricorn; Jupiter in Leo and Sun in Aries; or Jupiter, Sun, and Moon in Libra on Kartik Amavasya, 3 Sikh akharas: Bara Panchayati Udasins, Chota Panchayati Udasins, and Nirmal, The Purna Kumbh Mela (sometimes just called. [78] In 1986, 50 people were killed in a stampede. With each 12-year cycle per the Georgian calendar, a calendar year adjustment appears in approximately 8 cycles. According to Kama MacLean, the socio-political developments during the colonial era and a reaction to the Orientalism led to the rebranding and remobilisation of the ancient Magha Mela as the modern era Kumbh Mela, particularly after the Indian Rebellion of 1857. [122], In November 2018, Islamic terrorist organisation ISIS threatened to attack the Hindu pilgrims who visit the Kumbh at Prayagrajin 2019. [40] It is also mentioned in the Pali canons of Buddhism, such as in section 1.7 of Majjhima Nikaya, wherein the Buddha states that bathing in Payaga (Skt: Prayaga) cannot wash away cruel and evil deeds, rather the virtuous one should be pure in heart and fair in action. Kumbh Mela (IFA: ˌkʊm ˈmeɪlə) is in Hindoeïsme ’n massabedevaart waarin Hindoes saamkom om in ’n heilige rivier te bad. The Mahanirbani and Niranjani are the other large contingents, and each akhara has their own lineage of saints and teachers. KUMBH : Sarvjan - Sahbhagita ka Vishalatam Amritparva with 1 Disc (Hindi, Paperback, Ramanand)Pilgrims Publishings, India, This page was last edited on 5 January 2021, at 12:26. So they built a high-tech surveillance ministate", "Mauni Amavasya: Five crore pilgrims take holy dip at Kumbh till 5 pm", "Review of Pilgrimage and Power: The Kumbh Mela in Allahabad, 1765–1954", "Time Trends of Cholera in India : An Overview", "Five die in stampede at Hindu bathing festival", Kumbh Mela pictured from space – probably the largest human gathering in history, "India's Hindu Kumbh Mela festival begins in Allahabad", Kumbh Mela: How UP will manage one of the world's biggest religious festival, "Official Website of Kumbh Mela 2013 Allahabad Uttar Pradesh India", "CM reviews Kumbh Mela 2021 preparations", "Managing the Earth's Biggest Mass Gathering Event and WASH Conditions: Maha Kumbh Mela (India)", 10.1371/currents.dis.e8b3053f40e774e7e3fdbe1bb50a130d, India: Staying Healthy at “The Biggest Gathering on Earth”, "Sadhus astride elephants, horses at Maha Kumbh", "Short Cut to Nirvana - A Documentary about the Kumbh Mela Spiritual Festival", "Kumbh Mela 2013 – living with mahatiagi", "Why twins no longer get separated at Kumbh Mela", "Uncertified film screening at Kolkata gallery miffs CBFC", "India's Kumbh Mela Is Used as an Incubator for Smart City Startup Ideas", "Massachusetts Institute of Technology joins the pilgrims at the Kumbh Mela in Nashik, India to test out technology for our over-crowded cities", "From Waze for crowds to Uber for street food – MIT innovations at Kumbh Mela", "ISIS Has Just Warned India Of Las Vegas Type Lone-Wolf Attacks During Kumbh Mela", "Kumbh Mela 2019: ISIS issues threats of chemical attack, NDRF conducts mock drill",, Articles with dead external links from June 2020, Short description is different from Wikidata, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from January 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2019, Articles with Encyclopædia Britannica links, Беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Religious pilgrimage, rituals, social practices and festive events. In a later day extension to the legend, the pot is spilled at four places, and that is the origin of the four Kumbha Melas. Of those who do belong to a group, the thirteen active akharas have been,[66], The ten Shaiva and Vaishnava akharas are also known as the Dasanamis, and they believe that Adi Shankara founded them and one of their traditional duties is dharma-raksha (protection of faith). The 10-minute audio clip warned of a 2017 Las Vegas style attacks to be carried out by lone wolf attackers. Kumbh mela is a Hindu festival which is held once in twelve years. ˈku̇mməˌlä noun Usage: usually capitalized K&M Etymology: Hindi kumbh melā festival in the sign of the zodiac Aquarius, from Sanskrit kumbha pot, Aquarius + melā assembly more at hump, militate : a Hindu festival occurring once every 12 years in… Danach kämpften in Indien einst Götter und Dämonen verbissen um einen „Kumbh“. The Ardh Kumbh Mela ("half Kumbh") occurs approximately every 6 years between the two Purna Kumbha Melas at Prayagrajand Haridwar. [59][62][63] At the 1760 Kumbh Mela in Haridwar, a clash broke out between Shaivite Gosains and Vaishnavite Bairagis (ascetics), resulting in hundreds of deaths. The later Mughal Empire era texts that contain the term "Kumbha Mela" in Haridwar's context include Khulasat-ut-Tawarikh (1695–1699 CE),[53] and Chahar Gulshan (1759 CE). [5] In Tirthayatra Parva, before the great war, the epic states "the one who observes firm [ethical] vows, having bathed at Prayaga during Magha, O best of the Bharatas, becomes spotless and reaches heaven. The 4 places of ‘Kumbh Mela’ are symbols of 4 directions. The most significant is the belief that the tirtha (pilgrimage) to the Kumbh Mela sites and then bathing in these holy rivers has a salvific value, moksha – a means to liberation from the cycle of rebirths (samsara). This and other details such as the names of temples and bathing pools suggest that Xuanzang presented Hindu practices at Prayag in the 7th-century, from his Buddhist perspective and perhaps to "amuse his audience back in China", states Glucklich. When aided, the rituals may begin with mundan (shaving of head), prayers with offerings such as flowers, sindur (vermilion), milk or coconut, along with the recitation of hymns with shradha (prayers in the honour of one's ancestors). During the 1857 rebellion, Colonel Neill targeted the Kumbh mela site and shelled the region where the Prayagwals lived, destroying it in what Maclean describes as a "notoriously brutal pacification of Allahabad". The first British reference to the Kumbh Mela in Prayag occurs only in an 1868 report, which mentions the need for increased pilgrimage and sanitation controls at the "Coomb fair" to be held in January 1870. He also includes a 1814 letter from his missionary friend who distributed copies of the Gospel to the pilgrims and tried to convert some to Christianity. The festival management workers have only two and a half months to start and complete the construction of all temporarily infrastructure necessary for the pilgrims, making the task even more challenging. The Maha Kumbh, which occurs every 12 Purna Kumbh Melas i.e. [39], – Kama Maclean (2008)Pilgrimage and Power: The Kumbh Mela in Allahabad, 1765-1954[51], According to James Lochtefeld – a scholar of Indian religions, the phrase Kumbh Mela and historical data about it is missing in early Indian texts. After 1947, the state governments have taken over this role and provide the infrastructure for the Kumbh mela in their respective states. [6], Maha Kumbh at Prayagrajis the largest in the world, the attendance and scale of preparation of which keeps rising with each successive celebration. [52] Manuscripts related to Hindu ascetics and warrior-monks – akharas fighting the Islamic Sultanates and Mughal Empire era – mention bathing pilgrimage and a large periodic assembly of Hindus at religious festivals associated with bathing, gift-giving, commerce and organisation. Kumbh Mela: the Greatest Festival on Earth The Kumbh Mela happens on a scale that is vast. Harvard University, South Asia Institute (2015). These Purana-genre Hindu texts describe it as a place "bustling with pilgrims, priests, vendors, beggars, guides" and local citizens busy along the confluence of the rivers (sangam). Approximately once a century, the Kumbh mela returns after 11 years. [2], One of the key features of the Kumbh mela has been the camps and processions of the sadhus (monks). Este texto é disponibilizado nos termos da licença. O festival Kumbh Mela foi classificado pela UNESCO em 2017 como Património Cultural Imaterial da Humanidade. For the 2019 Ardh Kumbh at Prayagraj, the preparations include a ₹42,000 million (US$590 million or €540 million) temporary city over 2,500 hectares with 122,000 temporary toilets and range of accommodation from simple dormitory tents to 5-star tents, 800 special trains by the Indian Railway, artificially intelligent video surveillance and analytics by IBM, disease surveillance, river transport management by Inland Waterways Authority of India, and an app to help the visitors. For example, in Tamil Nadu, the Magha Mela with water-dip ritual is a festival of antiquity. [72] The British officials in co-operation with the native police also made attempts to improve the infrastructure, movement of pilgrims to avoid a stampede, detect sickness, and the sanitary conditions at the Melas. [44], Other early accounts of the significance of Prayag to Hinduism is found in the various versions of the Prayaga Mahatmya, dated to the late 1st-millennium CE. [79] The Prayag Kumbh mela in 1885 became a source of scandal when a Muslim named Husain was appointed as the Kumbh Mela manager, and Indian newspaper reports stated that Husain had "organised a flotilla of festooned boats for the pleasure of European ladies and gentlemen, and entertained them with dancing girls, liquor and beef" as they watched the pilgrims bathing. According to Macclean, the colonial records of this period on the Prayag Mela present a biased materialistic view given they were written by colonialists and missionaries. Sie erzählt von einem Kampf der Götter um den Trank der Unsterblichkeit. [83], The historical and modern estimates of attendance vary greatly between sources. People make the pilgrimage to the Kumbh Mela specifically to observe and experience both the religious and secular aspects of the event. The phrases such as "Maha Kumbh" and "Ardh Kumbh" in the context of the ancient religious pilgrimage festivals with a different name at Prayag, Nasik and Ujjain are evidently of a more modern era. The exact years – particularly for the Kumbh Melas at Ujjain and Nashik – have been a subject of dispute in the 20th-century. [5][107] Pilgrimage and bathing in holy rivers with a motivation to do penance and as a means to self-purify has Vedic precedents and is discussed in the early dharma literature of Hinduism. will you go there ? Kumbh Mela, religious festival and pilgrimage rotating between four sacred rivers. [90] In 2013, 120 million pilgrims attended the Kumbh Mela at Prayagraj. [124], Hindu pilgrimage and festival celebrated in India. Kumbh Mela and The Sadhus,(English, Paperback, Badri Narain and Kedar Narain) Pilgrims Publishings, India. The terrorists had threatened to poison the water of river Ganga. [10], Kumbh Mela at Prayagrajis celebrated approximately 3 years after Kumbh at Haridwar and 3 years before Kumbh at Nashik and Ujjain (both of which are celebrated in the same year or one year apart). [2], The Kumbh Mela at Ujjain began in the 18th century, when the Maratha ruler Ranoji Shinde invited ascetics from Nashik to Ujjain for a local festival. O Khumba Mela ou Kumbh Mela (de khumb, "pote" e mela, "festival") é o principal festival do hinduísmo, que ocorre quatro vezes a cada doze anos na Índia, rodando por quatro cidades: Prayagraj, Ujjain, Nashik e Haridwar. ][9] of an annual Magha Mela in Hinduism – with periodic larger gatherings after 6 or 12 years – where pilgrims gathered in massive numbers and where one of the rituals included a sacred dip in a river or holy tank. According to Maclean, the Prayagwal Brahmin priests of Prayag coopted the Kumbh legend and brand to the annual Prayag Magh Mela given the socio-political circumstances in the 19th-century.