", Concurring reports in Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche's biography (1904) and a letter by Mathilde Schenk-Nietzsche to, "Letter to Heinrich von Stein, December 1882.". He was especially interested, therefore, in a probing analysis and evaluation of the fundamental cultural values of Western philosophy, religion, and morality, which he characterized as expressions of the ascetic ideal. And the triumph of meaninglessness is the triumph of nihilism: “God is dead.” Nietzsche thought, however, that most people could not accept the eclipse of the ascetic ideal and the intrinsic meaninglessness of existence but would seek supplanting absolutes to invest life with meaning. Porter, James I. The two met Nietzsche in Rome in April 1882, and Nietzsche is believed to have instantly fallen in love with Salomé, as Rée had done. In its preface—which suggests Nietzsche was well aware of the interpretive difficulties his work would generate—he declares, "Hear me! At least toward the end of his life, Nietzsche believed his ancestors were Polish. Between 1868 and 1870, he published two other studies on Diogenes Laertius: This is how R. B. Pippin describes Nietzsche's views in, Nietzsche comments in many notes about the matter being a hypothesis drawn from the metaphysics of substance. However, he was deeply disappointed by the Bayreuth Festival of 1876, where the banality of the shows and baseness of the public repelled him. "[206], One such reaction to the loss of meaning is what Nietzsche called passive nihilism, which he recognized in the pessimistic philosophy of Schopenhauer. [221], "Eternal return" (also known as "eternal recurrence") is a hypothetical concept that posits that the universe has been recurring, and will continue to recur, for an infinite number of times across infinite time or space. NIETZSCHE. [March 1887] 1921. sfn error: no target: CITEREFNietzsche2001 (, Wahrig-Schmidt, B. Nietzsche asserted that what made people great was not the content of their beliefs, but the act of valuing. "[218] Of such forces Nietzsche said they could perhaps be viewed as a primitive form of the will. [187] To be "good" was to be happy and to have the things related to happiness: wealth, strength, health, power, etc. Some maintain that Nietzsche contracted it in a male brothel in Genoa. According to Heidegger, it is the burden imposed by the question of eternal recurrence—whether it could possibly be true—that is so significant in modern thought: "The way Nietzsche here patterns the first communication of the thought of the 'greatest burden' [of eternal recurrence] makes it clear that this 'thought of thoughts' is at the same time 'the most burdensome thought. [171] He notes that whenever Apollonian culture dominates, the Dionysian lacks the structure to make a coherent art, and when Dionysian dominates, the Apollonian lacks the necessary passion. He began his career as a classical philologist before turning to philosophy. Weber, for example, relied on Nietzsche's perspectivism by maintaining that objectivity is still possible—but only after a particular perspective, value, or end has been established. The 1868 riding accident and diseases in 1870 may have aggravated these persistent conditions, which continued to affect him through his years at Basel, forcing him to take longer and longer holidays until regular work became impractical. [43] Prominent elements of his philosophy include his radical critique of truth in favor of perspectivism; a genealogical critique of religion and Christian morality and related theory of master–slave morality;[36][44][i] the aesthetic affirmation of existence in response to the "death of God" and the profound crisis of nihilism;[36] the notion of Apollonian and Dionysian forces; and a characterization of the human subject as the expression of competing wills, collectively understood as the will to power. His works remain controversial, due to varying interpretations and misinterpretations. The ascetic ideal is born when suffering becomes endowed with ultimate significance. Zarathustra's gift of the overman is given to mankind not aware of the problem to which the overman is the solution. [151] It is also known that Nietzsche frequented heterosexual brothels. He owed the awakening of his philosophical interest to reading Schopenhauer's The World as Will and Representation and later admitted that Schopenhauer was one of the few thinkers whom he respected, dedicating the essay "Schopenhauer as Educator" in the Untimely Meditations to him. Even though the concept is famously related to The Birth of Tragedy, the poet Hölderlin had already spoken of it, and Winckelmann had talked of Bacchus. "[232] Zarathustra presents the overman as the creator of new values, and he appears as a solution to the problem of the death of God and nihilism. [2] Nietzsche resigned in 1879 due to health problems that plagued him most of his life; he completed much of his core writing in the following decade. 1844 October 15: Friedrich Nietzsche born at Röcken in the outskirts of Lützen, province of Saxony to Franziska Nietzsche, née Oehler, and Carl Ludwig Nietzsche, a pastor, who names his son after King Friedrich William IV of Prussia. "Nietzsches Staatsangehörigkeit als Rechtsfrage. To the end of his life, Gast and Overbeck remained consistently faithful friends. [233] In this way Zarathustra proclaims his ultimate goal as the journey towards the state of overman. "Friedrich Nietzsches Heimatlosigkeit. [253] Nietzsche early learned of Darwinism through Friedrich Albert Lange. (For example, Elisabeth removed aphorism 35 of The Antichrist, where Nietzsche rewrote a passage of the Bible.) Let you will say: the overman shall be the meaning of the earth ... Man is a rope, tied between beast and overman—a rope over an abyss ... what is great in man is that he is a bridge and not an end. Wilhelm, Bismarck, and all anti-Semites abolished. [190] On the other hand, Nietzsche called master morality "a higher order of values, the noble ones, those that say Yes to life, those that guarantee the future. However, Nietzsche referred to Kant as a "moral fanatic", Plato as "boring", Mill as a "blockhead", and of Spinoza, he said: "How much of personal timidity and vulnerability does this masquerade of a sickly recluse betray? Ihre Kritik an Nietzsche geht weit über die Kritik an Nietzsches Antikebild hinaus, auf die ich mich hier beschränke. Although Nietzsche gave a historical genealogy of master and slave morality, he maintained that it was an ahistorical typology of traits present in everyone. In his opinion, some people would be able to become superior individuals through the use of will power. [275] Nietzsche is known today as a precursor to existentialism, post-structuralism and postmodernism. The Greek spectators, by looking into the abyss of human suffering depicted by characters on stage, passionately and joyously affirmed life, finding it worth living. Nietzsche claimed the death of God would eventually lead to the loss of any universal perspective on things and any coherent sense of objective truth. [78][79] On returning to Basel in 1870, Nietzsche observed the establishment of the German Empire and Otto von Bismarck's subsequent policies as an outsider and with a degree of skepticism regarding their genuineness. [72], Nietzsche's 1870 projected doctoral thesis, "Contribution toward the Study and the Critique of the Sources of Diogenes Laertius" ("Beiträge zur Quellenkunde und Kritik des Laertius Diogenes"), examined the origins of the ideas of Diogenes Laërtius. Hecker, Hellmuth. Hans von Müller debunked the genealogy put forward by Nietzsche's sister in favor of Polish noble heritage. Mit frisch entdeckten Aufzeichnungen von Ida Overbeck neu ediert von, Constable, Marianne. Nietzsche had already met Richard Wagner in Leipzig in 1868 and later Wagner's wife, Cosima. [110] Langbehn assumed progressively greater control of Nietzsche until his secretiveness discredited him. She had been interested in Nietzsche as a friend, but not as a husband. [52] The family then moved to Naumburg, where they lived with Nietzsche's maternal grandmother and his father's two unmarried sisters. During these years Nietzsche met Meta von Salis, Carl Spitteler, and Gottfried Keller. He went on to list the number of people Epicurus, for example, had to rely on to supply his simple diet of goat cheese.[86]. Alexander Nehamas writes in Nietzsche: Life as Literature of three ways of seeing the eternal recurrence: Nehamas concluded that, if individuals constitute themselves through their actions, they can only maintain themselves in their current state by living in a recurrence of past actions (Nehamas, 153). He became acquainted with the work of the then almost-unknown poet Friedrich Hölderlin, calling him "my favorite poet" and composing an essay in which he said that the mad poet raised consciousness to "the most sublime ideality". 115 letters 1874–1886 | Correspondences", "The lost 'Aryan utopia' of Nueva Germania", "Nietzsches Briefe. Values involve a rank-ordering of things, and so are inseparable from approval and disapproval, yet it was dissatisfaction that prompted men to seek refuge in other-worldliness and embrace other-worldly values. [88] After discovering the situation, Nietzsche's sister Elisabeth became determined to get Nietzsche away from the "immoral woman". The concept of such an all-inclusive perspective is as incoherent as the concept of seeing an object from every possible vantage point simultaneously. p. 11 of his transl. [143] Max Oehler, Nietzsche's cousin and curator of the Nietzsche Archive at Weimar, argued that all of Nietzsche's ancestors bore German names, including the wives' families. [176][177][178] Nietzsche rejected the idea of objective reality, arguing that knowledge is contingent and conditional, relative to various fluid perspectives or interests. [108] Nietzsche's reception and recognition enjoyed their first surge. A man in this state transforms things until they mirror his power—until they are reflections of his perfection. [194][195] He called himself an "immoralist" and harshly criticized the prominent moral philosophies of his day: Christianity, Kantianism, and utilitarianism. Nietzsche is adamant that the works of Aeschylus and Sophocles represent the apex of artistic creation, the true realization of tragedy; it is with Euripides, that tragedy begins its Untergang (literally 'going under' or 'downward-way;' meaning decline, deterioration, downfall, death, etc.). Krell, David Farrell, and Donald L. Bates. 1988. Nietzsche first proposed the idea of eternal return in a parable in Section 341 of The Gay Science, and also in the chapter "Of the Vision and the Riddle" in Thus Spoke Zarathustra, among other places. Friedrich Nietzsches Kritik der Moral Was bedeutet Moral in Nietzsches Denken? "A thousand goals have there been so far", says Zarathustra, "for there are a thousand peoples. "German Philosophy in 1907. [75][76], Nevertheless, Nietzsche served in the Prussian forces during the Franco-Prussian War (1870–1871) as a medical orderly. Antwort hinzufügen. "Genealogy and Jurisprudence: Nietzsche, Nihilism, and the Social Scientification of Law.". Nietzsche remarked freely about the isolation he felt within the philological community and attempted unsuccessfully to transfer to a position in philosophy at Basel. Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (/ ˈ n iː tʃ ə, ˈ n iː tʃ i /; German: [ˈfʁiːdʁɪç ˈvɪlhɛlm ˈniːtʃə] or [ˈniːtsʃə]; 15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was a German philosopher, cultural critic, composer, poet, and philologist whose work has exerted a profound influence on modern intellectual history. Wahnbriefe", Nietzsches Briefe, Ausgewählte Korrespondenz, Wahnzettel 1889, "Nietzsche's Visionary Values – Genius or Dementia? For other uses, see, A strict example of a cause-and-effect mismatch, with regard to the God-creator as the cause and our concepts as the effects, is perhaps not fully stressed in the ". The middle period, from Human, All-Too-Human up to The Gay Science, reflects the tradition of French aphorists. He concluded that metaphysics has reached its potential and that the ultimate fate and downfall of metaphysics was proclaimed with the statement "God is dead."[210]. In fact, interest in Nietzsche's thought did increase at this time, if rather slowly and hardly perceptibly to him. Paradoxes and Lessons of a Hard Case", "Zarathustra's Secret. "[139] At one point, Nietzsche becomes even more adamant about his Polish identity. 105–12 in, Leonard Sax, "What was the cause of Nietzsche's dementia? If the favoured, the “good,” were powerful, it was said that the meek would inherit the earth. During the late 19th century Nietzsche's ideas were commonly associated with anarchist movements and appear to have had influence within them, particularly in France and the United States. German conductor and pianist Hans von Bülow also described another of Nietzsche's pieces as "the most undelightful and the most antimusical draft on musical paper that I have faced in a long time. Nietzsche’s critique of traditional morality centred on the typology of “master” and “slave” morality. In 1879, after a significant decline in health, Nietzsche had to resign his position at Basel. [116][117] Leonard Sax suggested the slow growth of a right-sided retro-orbital meningioma as an explanation of Nietzsche's dementia;[118] Orth and Trimble postulated frontotemporal dementia[119] while other researchers have proposed a hereditary stroke disorder called CADASIL. It extols reason and science, experiments with literary genres, and expresses Nietzsche’s emancipation from his earlier Romanticism and from Schopenhauer and Wagner. "[141] Nietzsche believed his name might have been Germanized, in one letter claiming, "I was taught to ascribe the origin of my blood and name to Polish noblemen who were called Niëtzky and left their home and nobleness about a hundred years ago, finally yielding to unbearable suppression: they were Protestants. These points of difference from Schopenhauer cover the whole philosophy of Nietzsche. [74][ii], Before moving to Basel, Nietzsche renounced his Prussian citizenship: for the rest of his life he remained officially stateless. ", Nietzsche, Friedrich. Some[237] have suggested that the eternal return is related to the overman, since willing the eternal return of the same is a necessary step if the overman is to create new values untainted by the spirit of gravity or asceticism. One must have the strength of the overman to will the eternal recurrence. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, Decade of isolation and creativity (1879–89). Friedrich Nietzsche, Complete Works Vol. [220] According to these scholars, the 'burning' story supports their thesis that, at the end of his lucid life, Nietzsche rejected his project on the will to power. Heidegger interpreted the death of God with what he explained as the death of metaphysics. 2004. Nietzsche recognized this and maintained his solitude, though he often complained. Jahrhunderts. He spent many summers in Sils Maria near St. Moritz in Switzerland. The death of God may lead beyond bare perspectivism to outright nihilism, the belief that nothing has any inherent importance and that life lacks purpose. Jensen, Anthony K., and Helmut Heit, eds. [228][229][230][231] Writing about nihilism in Also Sprach Zarathustra, Nietzsche introduced a value-creating Übermensch, not as a project, but as an anti-project, the absence of any project. His inaugural lecture at the university was "Homer and Classical Philology". "Nietzsche and the Philology of the Future" (Stanford University Press, 2000). [227], Another concept important to understanding Nietzsche is the Übermensch (Overman). "[243] He likewise expressed contempt for British author George Eliot. [174] Michel Foucault commented that his own book Madness and Civilization should be read "under the sun of the great Nietzschean inquiry". Nietzsche Summary. Although Nietzsche had previously announced at the end of On the Genealogy of Morality a new work with the title The Will to Power: Attempt at a Revaluation of All Values, he seems to have abandoned this idea and, instead, used some of the draft passages to compose Twilight of the Idols and The Antichrist in 1888.[100]. After his death, Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche became the curator and editor of her brother's manuscripts. He describes primordial unity as the increase of strength, the experience of fullness and plenitude bestowed by frenzy. [292] In Russia, Nietzsche influenced Russian symbolism[293] and figures such as Dmitry Merezhkovsky,[294] Andrei Bely,[295] Vyacheslav Ivanov and Alexander Scriabin incorporated or discussed parts of Nietzsche philosophy in their works. Nietzsche led "Germania", a music and literature club, during his summers in Naumburg. And man shall be that to overman: a laughing stock or painful embarrassment. Nietzsche's friendship with Deussen and Rohde cooled as well. "In it, concepts such as the will to power, the eternal return of the same, the overman, gay science, self-overcoming and so on receive rough, unnamed formulations and are linked to specific pre-Platonic, especially Heraclitus, who emerges as a pre-Platonic Nietzsche. Preface by Gianni Vattimo, Rowman & Littlefield, London – New York, 2016, This page was last edited on 8 January 2021, at 17:24. "Nietzsche's Vorfahren" (reprint). [56], While at Schulpforta, Nietzsche pursued subjects that were considered unbecoming. Brobjer, Thomas. [citation needed] Knut Hamsun counted Nietzsche, along with Strindberg and Dostoyevsky, as his primary influences. He proposed to Lou Salomé three times and each time was rejected. "[92] In later recriminations, Nietzsche would blame on separate occasions the failure in his attempts to woo Salomé on Salomé, Rée, and on the intrigues of his sister (who had written letters to the families of Salomé and Rée to disrupt the plans for the commune). "[307] Israel Eldad, the ideological chief of the Stern Gang that fought the British in Palestine in the 1940s, wrote about Nietzsche in his underground newspaper and later translated most of Nietzsche's books into Hebrew. Nietzsche also met Richard Wagner for the first time later that year. And they also claim that Nietzsche directed his landlord to burn those notes in 1888 when he left Sils Maria. The Interior Life of Friedrich Nietzsche", "Who knew? According to a letter he wrote to Peter Gast, this was due to his "attitude towards Christianity and the concept of God".[95]. 70–79. He is known to have tried using the Hansen Writing Ball, a contemporary typewriter device. [97][98] Through correspondence, Nietzsche's relationship with Elisabeth continued through cycles of conflict and reconciliation, but they met again only after his collapse. [299], By World War I, Nietzsche had acquired a reputation as an inspiration for right-wing German militarism and leftist politics. Whether man recovers from it, whether he becomes a master of this crisis, is a question of his strength! Nietzsche's father died from a brain ailment in 1849; Ludwig Joseph died six months later at age two. It could seem that the overman, in being devoted to any values at all, would necessarily fail to create values that did not share some bit of asceticism. All this contributed to his subsequent decision to distance himself from Wagner. Emilio Carlo Corriero, "Nietzsche's Death of God and Italian Philosophy". He pointed out that what is common among different peoples is the act of esteeming, of creating values, even if the values are different from one person to the next. Richard Nixon read Nietzsche with "curious interest", and his book Beyond Peace might have taken its title from Nietzsche's book Beyond Good and Evil which Nixon read beforehand.

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